CJ for Students

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Other Resources on the Net

Other resources will be added here as I gather them

 

Department of Corrections

Each article on this page was pulled from sites that specialize in peer reviewed documents. These sites included Capella University’s online library, Sage Publications, Proquest, EBSCO, ERICS, as well as numerous others.

Each document has been thoroughly scanned personally for viruses, Trojans, or macros and is clean and safe for download. These documents are in Adobe PDF or word format

 

A bibliography for female offender issues - Williams et al 2010

This is a list of authors and titles that reflect research of female criminal offenders.

 

Drug treatment outcomes research study DTORS: A qualitative study - Bernard et al 2009

"The qualitative study of the Drug Treatment Outcomes Research Study (DTORS) was designed to explore treatment providers’ and treatment seekers’ perspectives on the factors influencing the effectiveness of drug misuse treatment in England."

 

 

Guidelines for implementing an objective classification system in jails - Brennan et al 2009

"The implementation of new technologies in both public and private
organizations has assumed increasing importance in the last several years. In the Criminal Justice System, for example, numerous advances in information technology, data management, and many new programs and procedures are continually being incorporated into jails, prisons, probation departments, courts, etc. These new procedures often aim to achieve greater efficiency, to comply
with legal requirements, or to solve critical organizational problems (e.g. jail overcrowding). Programs or procedures developed in one jurisdiction are often transferred and implemented in other jurisdictions."

 

 

Prisoners as research subjects - Encyclopedia of Bioethics third Ed 2009

"Since the 1980s, virtually no prisoners in the United States have been used in biomedical experimentation that does not benefit prisoners as individuals or as a class. A principal reason is that ethical reflection on this topic in the 1970s not only decisively affected public policy but also shaped an enduring moral consensus in society"

 

 

The history of prisons - World Encyclopedia of Police Forces and Correctional Systems 2009

"Prisons, as places of confinement for lawbreakers, debtors, enemy combatants, political dissidents, religious heretics, and others, came into existence thousands of years before the common era. The modern concept of prisons, however, as places where offenders would be confined for specified periods of time as punishment for criminal offenses, did not emerge fully until the eighteenth century.
Before then, states and societies seldom used imprisonment as a punishment. Rather, prisons functioned merely as detention areas to house offenders until the state could mete out the actual sentences—usually some form of capital or corporal punishment."

 

 

The LSI-R and the Compas: Validation Data on Two Risk-Needs Tools - Fass et al 2008

"Over the past two decades, the role of risk-needs assessment in the criminal justice system has increased substantially. This study provides validation data on the Level of Service Inventory–Revised (LSI-R) and the Correctional Offender Management Profiling for Alternative Sanctions (COMPAS) using a large male cohort (N = 975) with a substantial proportion of ethnic minority offenders. In comparing the predictive validity of these tools, the authors employed a retrospective, archival, knowngroups design to study outcomes of offenders released into the community from New Jersey prisons between 1999 and 2002, with a postrelease outcome period of 12 months. The results indicate that both the LSI-R composite score and the COMPAS recidivism score have inconsistent validity when tested on different ethnic/racial populations. Furthermore, the results suggest that different ethnic/racial groups have varying risk and needs factors that predict recidivism."

 

 

Probation and Parole - APPA 2008

"The use of PROBATION and PAROLE is governed in part by competing philosophies, classicalism and positivism. In short, classicalists believe that offenders choose their actions and, therefore, in order to prevent (or deter) future criminal acts, such individuals should be punished. Conversely, positivists believe that
individuals are forced into the choice of committing crime through no fault of their own and, therefore, the conditions and/or behaviors that caused the action should be remedied, ultimately resulting in rehabilitation of the offender."

 

 

Domestic violence and mandatory arrests laws: To what extent do they influence police arrest decisions? - Hirschel et al 2008

"Current research on domestic violence indicates that intimate partner violence arrest rates have risen as a direct result of the implimentation of mandatory and preferred arrest domestic violence laws. However, this research also suggests that part of this increase can be attributed to an increase in the arrest rate of females in cases of domestic assault. In addition, the arrest of both parties involved in an incident also known as a dual arrest appears to have contributed to the rising rate of domestic assault arrests."

 

 

Prison Inmates at Midyear 2008 - Statistical Tables - West and Sabol 2008

National Prisoner Statistics (NPS)

 

 

The pros and cons of life without parole - Appleton et al 2007

"The question of how societies should respond to their most serious crimes if not with the death penalty is ‘perhaps the oldest of all the issues raised by the two-century struggle in western civilization
to end the death penalty’ ( Bedau, 1990: 481 ). In this article we draw attention to the rapid and extraordinary increase in the use of ‘life imprisonment without parole’ in the United States. We aim
to critically assess the main arguments put forward by supporters of whole life imprisonment as a punishment provided by law to replace the death penalty and argue against life-long detention as the ultimate sanction."

 

 

Do Corruption Indices Measure Corruption - Dilyan et al 2007

"This paper presents empirical evidence that the most widely used indices to measure corruption might be biased in systematic ways. Evidence from the International Crime Victimization Survey suggests that actual corruption experience may be a weak predictor of reported corruption perception, and that some of the factors commonly found to “reduce” corruption, such as economic
development, democratic institutions or Protestant traditions, systematically bias corruption perception downward from corruption experience. Individual characteristics, such as age, education, income and place of residence, are also shown to influence corruption perceptions holding experience constant. Using information on the different types of corruption experiences, we show that our results are unlikely to be due to the different populations (business executives vs. general public) surveyed."

 

 

Screening assessment and referal practices in adult correctional settings: A national perspective - Faye et al 2007

"The use of screening and assessment tools to gauge substance abuse disorders and the risk for recidivism are two widely recommended practices. A national survey of adult prisons, jails, and community correctional agencies was conducted to examine the practices used to place offenders in appropriate treatment services. Study findings indicate that 58.2% of the surveyed respondents report the use of a standardized substance abuse-screening tool, and that 34.2% use an actuarial risk tool. The provision of higher intensity treatment programs, the use of standardized risk tools, and the provision of more community referral services were all independently associated with the use of a standardized substance abuse-screening tool. Because practices vary considerably, agencies desiring to improve correctional programming should consider different dissemination, implementation, and technology transfer strategies."

 

 

Gender responsive programs: Addressing the needs of female offenders - Livers et al 2007

"It is essential that corrections professionals not only recognize and understand the unique needs of female offenders, but they must be prepared to address them."

 

 

Using group statistics to sentence individual criminals: An ethical and statistical critique of the Virginia risk assessment program - Netter 2007

"Virginia's program of nonviolent offender risk assessment uses predictions of recidivism to recomment which felons should be incarcerated. Unlike many sentencing schemes that rely upon the severity of the offense and the offender's criminal history, Virginia's depends on a statistical study commissioned by the legislature that purports to match offender characteristics with future behavior."

 

 

Prison inmates at midyear 2007 - Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin - Sabol et al 2007

This report is one in a series. More recent editions may be available. Visit the Dept. of Justice Statistics at bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov for more information.

 

 

Offender Needs and Functioning Assessments From a National Cooperative Research Program - Simpson and Knight 2007

"A recent national survey of U.S. voter attitudes concerning offender rehabilitation and reentry policies (Krisberg & Marchionna, 2006) shows a high level of public concern about the release of 700,000 prisoners annually. Providing rehabilitation services to prisoners
was favored by a margin of 8 to 1 (compared to using a punishment-only approach), and 70% supported use of these services both during prison and after release. A “lack of life skills” was considered a leading factor in the high re-arrest rates following prison release. Strong public support for providing substance abuse treatment in correctional populations and during community reentry has remained consistent for many years, justified by results from large-scale evaluations of its effectiveness (see Federal Bureau of Prisons, 2000; Simpson, Wexler, & Inciardi, 1999) as well as cost savings to society (McCollister et al., 2003)."

 

 

Screening, Assessment, and Referral Practices in Adult Correctional Settings: A National Perspective - Taxman et al 2007

"The use of screening and assessment tools to gauge substance abuse disorders and the risk for recidivism are two widely recommended practices. A national survey of adult prisons, jails, and community correctional agencies was conducted to examine
the practices used to place offenders in appropriate treatment services. Study findings indicate that 58.2% of the surveyed respondents report the use of a standardized substance abuse-screening tool, and that 34.2% use an actuarial risk tool. The provision of higher intensity treatment programs, the use of standardized risk tools, and the provision of more community referral services were all independently associated with the use of a standardized substance abuse-screening tool. Because practices vary considerably, agencies desiring to improve correctional programming should consider different dissemination, implementation, and technology transfer strategies."

 

 

Definition of final crime risk assessment mechanism to measure risk of theft of electronic products and proof them against theft - Armitage et al 2006

"This report presents research conducted as part of a two-year
European project (Project Marc) which aims to develop a mechanism to assess the risk of theft of electronic products and to take steps to
make that mechanism operational. The view of the authors, reflected throughout this report, is that the task of developing such a tool is vital yet daunting. It is vital because of the need to build upon the gains made within other sectors and the need to seize the opportunity presented by the realisation that crime trends can be explained in terms of the supply of opportunities, that reducing the supply of opportunities will reduce crime and that these tasks are not the sole responsibility of the police. It is daunting because in spite of extensive evidence for the efficacy of well-designed and implemented opportunity reduction measures, the problem comes when the crime to be prevented (theft of electronic products) is widespread but not generally devastating to its victims and when opportunity reduction finds itself in tension with commercial interests."

 

 

The LSI-R and the Compas: Validation Data on Two Risk-Needs Tools - Fass et al 2006

"Over the past two decades, the role of risk-needs assessment in the criminal justice system has increased substantially. This study provides validation data on the Level of Service Inventory–Revised (LSI-R) and the Correctional Offender Management Profiling for Alternative Sanctions (COMPAS) using a large male cohort (N = 975) with a substantial proportion of ethnic minority offenders. In comparing the predictive validity of these tools, the authors employed a retrospective, archival, knowngroups design to study outcomes of offenders released into the community from New Jersey prisons between 1999 and 2002, with a postrelease outcome period of 12 months. The results indicate that both the LSI-R composite score and the COMPAS recidivism score have inconsistent validity when tested on different ethnic/racial populations. Furthermore, the results suggest that different ethnic/racial groups have varying risk and needs factors that predict recidivism."

 

 

Evidence-based Practices in Corrections A Training Manual for the California Program Assessment Process (CPAP) - Grattet et al 2006

"This manual provides training materials for the proposed California Program Assessment Process (CPAP). It was assembled by the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Office of Research, and the University of California, Irvine, Center for Evidencebased Corrections. CPAP is a tool for determining whether offender change programs are likely to succeed in delivering on the CDCR’s promise to reduce recidivism through evidence-based
crime prevention and recidivism reduction strategies. The CPAP gives the CDCR an objective and consistent method for evaluating the design and implementation of programs using the best available evidence regarding what design elements make correctional programs effective in reducing recidivism."

 

 

Countering catastrophic criminology: Reform, punishment, and the modern liberal compromise - Hutchinson 2006

"This article argues that accounts that envisage rupture in penality tend to overplay the coherence of ‘modern’ punishment and underplay the inconsistency of current developments.
It suggests that this problem stems in large part from a failure to appreciate the ‘braided’ nature of modern liberal punishment, which is always about both punishment and reform. Part of the ‘secret’ to this is found in David Garland’s earlier work in which the ‘welfare sanction’ appears as a compromise between modernist scientific
expertise and liberal legalism and individualism. Normative regulation coupled with punishment in this bargain. As a result, even during the heyday of the welfare sanction and at rehabilitation’s height, punitive and deterrent penalties remained important. Similarly, there is substantial evidence that increasingly widespread approaches such as restorative justice, therapeutic justice and risk-need models carry a newly revised correctionalism into the present. Rather than conceive recent changes as indicative of a watershed in penal rationality and practice, this article suggests that it is more important to think about the ways in which neo-liberal assaults on the modernist side of this equation have transformed its character."

 

 

Management of the mentally ill in administrative segregation: Legal and management challenges - Maue 2006

"Both large and small correctional systems, jails, and prisons are challenged with managing bad behavior. Behavior resulting in disciplinary infractions in offenders with mental illness raises questions. Are these rules/infractions resulting from manifestations of mental illness or is mental illness a contributing factor? To avoid litigation, correctional systems must provide three key elements: access to care, proper treatment, and qualified staff to provide for and monitor care."

 

 

Predictors of prison-based treatment outcomes: a comparison of men and women participants - Messina et al 2006

"The purpose of this study was to examine differences between men and women entering prison-based therapeutic community (TC) treatment and to explore the relationship of those differences to posttreatment outcomes (i.e., aftercare participation and reincarceration rates). Extensive treatment-intake interview data for 4,386 women and 4,164 men from 16 prison-based TCs in California were compared using chi-square analyses and t-tests. Logistic regression analyses were then conducted separately for men and women to identify gender-specific factors associated with post-treatment outcomes. Prison intake data and treatment participation data come from a 5-year process and outcome evaluation of the California Department of Corrections' (CDC) Prison Treatment Expansion Initiative. The return-to-custody data came from the CDC's Offender Based Information System."

 

 

Assessing recidivism risk accross female pathways to crime - Reisig et al 2006

"Actuarial tools such as the Level of Supervision Inventory-Revised (LSI-R), are regularly used to classify offenders as high, medium, and low recidivism risks. Its supporters argue the theory upon which the LSI-R rests (i.e., social learning theory) accounts for criminal behavior among men and women. In short, the LSI-R is gender neutral. Feminist criminologists question the LSI-R's validity for female offender populations, especially women under community supervision. Guided by Daly's (1992, 1994) pathways to crime framework, we use a sample of women under community supervision in Minnesota and Oregon to evaluate the LSI-R's performance accross offender subgroups."

 

 

Criminal Justice System Reform and Wrongful Conviction: A Research Agenda - Zalman 2006

"This article describes the nature and importance of wrongful conviction as a criminal justice policy issue, the development of an innocence movement to litigate on behalf of potential exonerees and to promote policy issues, the innocence movement’s policy and
research agenda, and the very small amount of criminal justice research on the issue in comparison to legal and psychological inquiry. A research agenda for criminal justice policy scholars is proposed to explore the innocence movement and its research agenda. Research models from political science and sociology regarding the study of public policy, social movements, and interest groups offer themes and methods that would allow criminal justice researchers to expand their understanding of the criminal justice
system’s capacity for reform. Network analysis and the diffusion of innovation research are suggested as approaches to examine the context and spread of innocence reforms."

 

 

Washingtons Offender Accountability Act: A first look at outcomes - Aos et al 2005

"Preliminary results indicate that recidivism rates have declined
slightly since passage of Washington’s Offender Accountability Act (OAA). Enacted in 1999, the OAA requires the Department of Corrections to classify adult felony offenders and re-allocate
community-based resources by putting more effort on higher-risk offenders and less effort on lower-risk offenders. We estimate that the two-year felony recidivism rates of higher-risk offenders
have dropped by 3.5 percentage points, while the rates for lower-risk offenders have fallen a more modest 1.2 points. These findings are preliminary; definitive results will require four more years of
observation. While it is too early to conclude that the OAA “caused” the drop in recidivism, these initial outcomes can be interpreted as promising."

 

 

Rethinking_Rehabilitation - Farabee 2005

"I wish it were otherwise, but scientific evidence is sorely lacking to
support the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs for criminal
offenders. It is similarly lacking to support the effectiveness of most
programs aimed at treating conditions that exacerbate crime, such
as substance abuse and dependence. Although a limited menu of
behavioral and pharmacological treatments have shown small to
moderate effects among offenders when administered under controlled research conditions, those effects tend to decline rapidly
soon after criminal justice supervision is withdrawn. Moreover,
these empirically validated interventions are almost entirely
unavailable to offenders in day-to-day practice. The vast majority
of services for offenders and substance abusers in this country are
group-based, peer-administered, and loosely modeled on an amalgam of psycho-educational and twelve-step principles."

 

 

Best practices in corrections: Using literature to guide intervention - Reitzel 2005

This article in Corrections Today focuses on how to best use Evidence based practices for corrections management.

 

 

Classification of high risk and special management prisoners: A national assessment of current practices - Austin et al 2004

"During the past decade, prison systems have experienced increased pressure to improve their approaches to classifying prisoners according to custody, work, and programming needs. Litigation and overcrowding have caused classification systems
to be viewed as a principal management tool for allocating scarce prison resources efficiently and minimizing the potential for violence or escape. These systems are also expected to provide greater accountability and to help forecast future prison bedspace, staffing requirements, and prisoner program needs."

 

 

The proper and improper use of risk assessmernt in corrections - Austin 2004

"Nearly 7 million adults are under some form of correctional
supervision in the United States today as compared to 1.8 million in 1980. As depicted in Table 1 below, this represents a 270% increase in the number of adults under correctional supervision during this period. The largest number of offenders are on probation (nearly 4 million) followed by those in state and federal prison (1.4 million).
Both the prison and jail populations have increased the fastest but there have also been significant increases in the probation and parole populations."

 

 

Sentencing reform lessons: From the sentencing reform act of 1984 to the Feeney Amendmendt - Howell 2004

"For more than two decades, Congress has been on a mission to
obtain uniformity in the federal sentencing system. What began with
the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 (“SRA”), and was soon followed
by the Sentencing Guidelines, has been continually criticized by both
the judiciary and the legislature. In the spring of 2003, in what
caught many interested parties off guard, Congress abruptly
responded to the perceived inadequacies of the federal sentencing
system by enacting the Feeney Amendment to the PROTECT Act
(“The Prosecutorial Remedies and Tools Against the Exploitation of
Children Today Act of 2003”), signed into law by President Bush on
April 30, 2003.2 The Act implemented sweeping reforms focused on
eliminating trial judges’ discretion to deviate from congressionally
mandated sentences."

 

 

Empirical Evidence on the Importance of training and the experience in using the (LSI-R) - Lowenkamp et al 2004

"Recent trends in corrections have mandated the adoption and use of risk and need assessments for offenders. Research indicates that many correctional agencies around the country either currently use or are in the process of implementing risk and need assessment instruments. One example of an instrument that is being implemented on a wide scale is the Level of Service Inventory–Revised (LSI-R). Data from Multi-Health Systems, Inc. (MHS), the company that markets the LSI-R, indicate that more than 600 agencies in United States currently use this risk/need assessment tool. While increasing use of objective classification instruments is encouraging, simultaneously there are growing concerns regarding the effective implementation of these third-generation risk/need assessment tools."

 

 

Findings in prison classification and risk assessment - Austin 2003

"The past three decades have witnessed considerable changes to prison classification systems. Before 1980, only the California
Department of Corrections and the Federal Bureau of Prisons used objective classification systems. Subjective classification, which relied heavily upon the judgment of a wide array of prison officials to determine where a prisoner would be housed, and under what forms of supervision and security, was used at that time by practically all of the state prison systems. Since 1980, virtually all 50 states as well as Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands have fully
implemented objective systems."

 

 

Standardized treatment programs – Pennsylvania Department of Corrections 2003

"The Bureau of Inmate Services is responsible for the development and evaluation of inmate treatment programs for the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. This brochure is an overview of the standardized programs that are available to inmates according to their classification and prescribed treatment needs."

 

 

Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and criminal justice supervision - Marlowe 2003

"Proponents of a pure public safety perspective on the drug problem hold that drug-involved offenders require consistent and intensive supervision by criminal justice authorities in order to stay off drugs and out of trouble. In contrast, proponents of a thoroughgoing public health perspective commonly argue that clients perform better if they are left alone to develop an effective therapeutic alliance with counselors. Both may be correct, but with respect to different
groups of offenders. One approach has shown consistent promise for reducing drug use and criminal recidivism: an integrated public health-public safety strategy that combines community-based drug abuse treatment with ongoing criminal justice supervision. This article presents promising findings from programs implementing this strategy and discusses best treatment practices to meet the needs of both low-risk and high-risk clients."

 

 

Unlocking options for women a survey of women in cook county jail - Chicago Homeless Coalition 2002

"On October 31, 2001, 60 members of the Chicago Coalition for the Homeless conducted in-depth, one-on-one surveys with 235 of the 1,117 women detained that day in Cook County Jail. These surveys were designed and conducted to gain an understanding of women’s lives that may dictate and support policy initiatives and further direct service providers in assisting those in need. This study was conducted to document the lives of women detained in Cook County Jail and promote understanding of their many experiences. It reveals a great deal about the lives, current circumstances, and future hopes of 235 women detained that day."

 

 

Dementia in prison: Ethical and legal implications - Fazel et al 2002

"As the number of elderly prisoners increase in the UK and other western countries, there will be individuals who develop dementia whilst in custody. We present two case vignettes of men with dimentia in english prisons, and explore some of the ethical implications that their continuing detention raises. We find little to support their detention in the various purposes of prison put forward by legal philosophers and penologist, and conclude by raising some of the possible implications of the Human Rights Act of 1998."

 

 

Delinquency court assessment executive summary - Wells 2002

"Wells established the Children’s Court Improvement Committee to provide guidance to the judiciary on issues related to juveniles
in delinquency and dependency court. In addition, the Florida Legislature authorized Family Courts Trust Fund dollars to support
an assessment of Florida’s juvenile delinquency court system. This authorization called for the Children’s Court Improvement
Committee to conduct a study of delinquency court case processing, from which reported findings would serve as the basis for future
improvement initiatives."

 

 

Sentencing and Corrections in the 21st Century: Setting the Stage for the Future - Mackenzie 2001

"The past 30 years have seen enormous changes in the philosophy and practice of sentencing and corrections. The strong emphasis on rehabilitation that existed for the first seven decades of the 20th
century gave way in the 1970s to a focus on faimess and justice, by which sentences reflected “just deserts” rather than a utilitarian motive. Sentencing practices later moved toward a crime-control model that emphasized incarceration as a way to reduce crime in the community; this crime-control model became increasingly popular during the 1980s and 1990s. Discussion of sentencing and corrections in the 21 st century must begin with a review of these changes and their impact on the criminal justice system."

 

 

Two risk and need assessment instruments used in
probation services – an evaluation - Raynor et al 2001

"The performance and effectiveness of two assessment instruments, LSI-R and ACE, widely used by probation services, has been evaluated in an 18-month study. The study looked particularly at the instruments’ ability to predict reconviction, and at their reliability in
assessing risks of reoffending and offenders’ needs. It also examined the instruments’ potential for measuring changes related to reconviction risks which may take place during supervision. The main findings are reported here."

 

 

Drug abuse treatment in criminal justice settings: Enhancing community engagement and helpfulness - Czuchry et al 2000

"This study examined the impact of a treatment readiness program on probationers recieving drug abuse treatment in a modified therapeutic community (TC). The program we developed was designeded to increase motivation and improve skills needed for treatment progress."

 

 

InfoPac Risk assessment booklet - Hanson 2000

"Risk assessment is one of the most important and most frequent tasks required of those working with sexual offenders. Formal risk assessments are needed for many important decisions, including sentencing, family reunification, conditional release, and civil
commitment. Risk assessment can also assist in the case management and treatment of sexual offenders. Community supervision officers routinely look for signs of imminent relapse. Treatment providers wonder whether their clients are getting better or worse."

 

 

Recidivism of offenders released from prison in North Carolina: A gender comparison - Jones et al 1997

"A comparative analysis was conducted of rearrest statistics of males and females released from prison. They were tracked for recidivism. The results reveal that a greater percentage of males than females was rearrested in all offense categories. Program participation was a signficant predictor of property arrest among females while unstable employment was a significant predictor of rearrest for drug offenses among females but not in males."