CJ for Students

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Other Resources on the Net

More resources will be added here as I gather them


Female Offenders

Each article on this page was pulled from sites that specialize in peer reviewed documents. These sites included Capella University’s online library, Sage Publications, Proquest, EBSCO, ERICS, as well as numerous others.

Each document has been thoroughly scanned personally for viruses, Trojans, or macros and is clean and safe for download. These documents are in Adobe PDF or Word format


A bibliography for female offender issues - Williams et al 2010

This is a list of authors and titles that reflect research of female criminal offenders.



Women prisoners - Bloom 2009 (pgs 1041 to 1045)

"Women prisoners are no longer an invisible population in the United States. They represent a growing number of those incarcerated nationwide. In recent decades, the number of women imprisoned in state and federal prisons has increased dramatically, rising from 12,000 in 1980 to more than 96,000 in 2002. As of 2002, California, Texas, and the federal prison system held nearly 40% of all women prisoners.
In California alone, the female prison population rose from 1,316 in 1980 to more than 10,000 in 2002. In the federal system, the women’s prison population increased from 5,011 in 1990 to 11,281 in 2002."



Violence against women and girls: A compendium of monitoring and evaluation indicators - Bloom 2008

"This compendium was developed with the help of many individuals.
At the request of the USAID East Africa Regional Mission with the
Inter-agency Gender Working Group (USAID), MEASURE Evaluation
developed this compendium in collaboration with a technical
advisory group (TAG) of experts. The goal was to develop a set of
monitoring and evaluation indicators for program managers, organizations, and policy makers who are working to address violence
against women and girls (VAW/G) at the individual, community,
district/provincial and national levels in developing countries. An
extensive literature review was undertaken to document any indicators
in the field that were already being used."



One size does not fit all: Research and recommendations for gender-responsiveness in Alabama's criminal justice system - Boyde 2008

"In this two year study of girls and women in the criminal justice system, the commission found that gender differences among incarcerated must be addressed in order to provide the most effective and cost-efficient responses."



Technical assistance and training to implement a case management model NIC for women offenders - NIC 2008

"NIC has developed a gender-responsive case management model that is currently being piloted and evaluated in two jurisdictions. The purposes of the model are to reduce re-offending among criminal justice system involved women and to increase the health and well being of the women and their families. The two pilot jurisdictions are the Connecticut Judicial Branch, Court Support Services Division, for women sentenced to probation; and the Utah Department of Corrections for women in transition from prison to community supervision on parole."



Prison Inmates at Midyear 2008 - Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin - West and Sabol 2008

National Prisoner Statistics (NPS)



Prison inmates at midyear 2007 - Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin - Sabol et al 2008

This report is one in a series. More recent editions may be available. Visit the Dept. of Justice Statistics at bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov for more information.



Prostitute homicides: A descriptive study - Salfati et al 2008

"It has been estimated that women involved in street prostitution are 60 to 100 times more likely to be murdered than are nonprostitute females. In addition, homicides of prostitutes are notoriously difficult to investigate and, as such, many cases remain unsolved. Despite this large risk factor, little literature exists on homicides of prostitutes, and there is a lack of basic statistics and knowledge regarding this very specific victim group that could possibly help investigators. The aim of the current study is to conduct an exploratory study to explore the key characteristics of this group and how they differ from other subgroups of homicide. Forty-six cases of U.K. prostitute homicides are analyzed and compared to 59 male offender–female victim nonsexual homicide
cases and 17 male offender–female victim sexual homicide cases."



Achieving Accurate Pictures of Risk and Identifying Gender Responsive Needs: Two New Assessments for Women Offenders - Van Voorhis et al 2008

"With women offenders representing only seven percent of the U.S. prison population, prevailing correctional policies continue to focus on the risk and needs of male offenders. However, in recent years, the female prison populations have increased more rapidly than male
populations (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2005). Such rapid growth draws strong attention to existing practices of assessing and classifying women offenders (Van Voorhis, 2004). Current classification procedures involve the use of statistically-derived assessments that predict an
offender’s likelihood of recidivism or an inmate’s likelihood of serious misconducts. They provide a risk score that determines the custody level of one’s prison assignment if incarcerated or level of community supervision if on probation or parole. Some assessments also identify
needs that must be addressed in order to meet basic needs, change offender behavior, or assure humane prison adjustment (Clements, McKee, & Jones, 1984)."



Women Behind Bars: Gender and Race in U.S. Prisons - Diaz-Cotto 2007

"Women behind bars: Gender and race in U.S. Prisons by Vernetta D. Young and Rebecca Reviere provides a very general overview of women's experience with the criminal justice system and imprisonment in the U.S. It compiles data gathered by government agencies, private institutions, and social scientists."



Intimate partner violence: The role of suspect gender in prosecutorial decision making - Kingsnorth et al 2007

"Utilizing a sample of 8,461 cases involving heterosexual intimate partner violence, this paper examines the role of suspect gender in prosecutorial decision-making. Four points are assessed: the decision to file charges (versus rejection for sufficient evidence); to file as a felony (versus misdemeanor or probation violation); to dismiss for insufficient evidence (versus full prosecution); and to reduce felony charges to a misdemeanor or violation of probation."



Gender responsive programs: Addressing the needs of female offenders - Livers et al 2007




Providing gender responsive services for women and girls - Morton 2007

"This issue of corrections today focuses on female offenders as a part of the American Correctional Association's long-standing effort to improve programming and services for women and girls in the criminal justice system."



Predicting the Prison Misconducts of Women Offenders: The Importance of Gender-Responsive Needs - Wright et al 2007

"The needs of women offenders may be qualitatively different than the needs of male offenders. The “pathways” and “gender-responsive” perspectives of female offending have recently garnered attention in both practitioner and scholarly arenas. The pathways perspective focuses attention on the co-occurrence and effects of trauma, substance abuse, dysfunctional relationships, and mental illness on female offending, while the gender-responsive perspective also suggests that problems related to parenting, childcare, and self-concept issues are important needs of women offenders. Few studies have examined whether or not these are risk factors for poor prison adjustment. With a sample of 272 incarcerated women offenders in Missouri, we examine how each gender-responsive need is related to six- and twelve-month prison misconducts, and whether the inclusion of such needs to traditional static custody classification items increases the predictive validity of such tools. Results suggest that women offenders do, in fact, display gender-responsive risk factors in prison."



A bibliography for female offender issues - A Biliography 2006



Genetics and responsibility: To know the criminal from the crime - Farahany et al 2006

"Human behavioral genetics may enhance our understanding of human
behavior and yet have little relevance to assigning responsibility in the criminal law. As a scientific discipline, behavioral genetics seeks to understand the contributory roles of genetics and the environment to observed variations in human behavior. Like other sciences, it assumes that all natural phenomena have a scientific causal explanation, but focuses primarily on the correlation between genetic variation and behavioral variation among individuals in a population. Although the science is still in its infancy, stymied by disagreement over basic methodology and the definitions and metrics for measuring behavior,
behavioral genetics evidence has already been introduced in criminal trials for a variety of purposes: as exculpatory evidence, to bolster preexisting legal defenses, and as mitigating evidence during sentencing."



Women Entering the Legal Profession: Change and Resistance - Martinez 2006

"Though the practice of the criminal law occasionally may be “coarse,” this decision reflects the images and stereotypes that associate the law with masculinity. These images were used to justify the virtual exclusion of women from the prestigious and powerful legal profession in the United States until the 1970s. Despite Justice Ryan’s vivid language, the reasons for men’s resistance to women lawyers “likely has to do with the law’s close relationship to power in our society” (Morello, 1986, p. x). The legal profession structures power relations between groups and classes by shaping the rules and laws that open or limit opportunities
without resort to force, making it the quintessential male power role
(Hagan, Zatz, Arnold, & Kay, 1991)."



Predictors of prison based treatment outcomes a comparison of men and women participants - Mecina et al 2006

"The purpose of this study was to examine differences between men and women entering prison-based therapeutic community (TC) treatment and to explore the relationship of those differences to posttreatment outcomes (i.e., aftercare participation and reincarceration rates). Extensive treatment-intake interview data for 4,386 women and 4,164 men from 16 prison-based TCs in California were compared using chi-square analyses and t-tests. Logistic regression analyses were then conducted separately for men and women to identify gender-specific factors associated with post-treatment outcomes. Prison intake data and treatment participation data come from a 5-year process and outcome evaluation of the California Department of Corrections' (CDC) Prison Treatment Expansion Initiative. The return-to-custody data came from the CDC's Offender Based Information System. Bivariate results showed that women were at a substantial disadvantage compared with their male counterparts with regard to histories of employment, substance abuse, psychological functioning, and sexual and physical abuse prior to incarceration. In contrast, men had more serious criminal justice involvement than women prior to incarceration."



Assessing Recidivism Risk Across Female Pathways to Crime - Reisig et al 2006

"Actuarial tools, such as the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R), are regularly used to classify offenders as high, medium, and low recidivism risks. Its supporters argue the theory upon which the LSI-R rest (i.e., social learning theory) accounts for criminal behavior among men and women. In short, the LSI-R is gender neutral. Feminist criminologists question the LSI-R's validity for female offender populations, especially women under community supervision."



Gender, Mental Health, and Treatment Motivation in a Drug Court Setting - Webster et al 2006

"The current study examined differences in motivation for drug treatment in a sample of 500 (327 male and 173 female) drug court participants."


NIJ Re-entry programs for women offenders - Cohen et al 2005

"For years, practitioners in just about every field took research conducted primarily with male subjects and applied the findings to women. Recently, however, researchers have begun to question the applicability of those findings to women— and the answer has been mixed."



Gender responsive strategies for women offenders The Gender-Responsive Strategies Project: Jail Applications - McCampbell 2005

"This bulletin informs jail administrators about current research
regarding women offenders and introduces strategies for administrators to consider as they evaluate current operating procedures.1 At midyear 2002, 77,369 women were incarcerated in U.S. jails,2 compared with 588,106 men held in jails.3 The number of women inmates in the nation’s jails increased nearly 50 percent from 1995 to 2002.4 The absolute number of women inmates is much lower than the absolute
number of men; however, their impact on jail operations is significant, raising concerns about the adequacy of the physical plant, medical and mental health services, privacy, and crowding of women’s housing units. Often, jail administrators are challenged to address the needs of women inmates. Although the body of research regarding women in prison has grown, little research has been conducted about women in jails or meeting the needs of these women inmates."



Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy - Bloom et al 2004

"At 17%, women represent a significant proportion of all offenders under criminal justice supervision in the U.S. Drawing on the findings from their report, Gender Responsive Strategies: Research, Practice, and Guiding Principles for Women Offenders, the authors maintain that public policy has ignored the context of women's lives and that women offenders have disproportionately suffered from the impact of ill-informed public policy."



Empirical Evidence on the Importance of training and the experience in using the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) - Lowenkamp et al_ 2004

"Recent trends in corrections have mandated the adoption and use of risk and need assessments for offenders. Research indicates that many correctional agencies around the country either currently use or are in the process of implementing risk and need assessment instruments. One example of an instrument that is being implemented on a wide scale is the Level of Service Inventory–Revised (LSI-R). Data from Multi-Health Systems, Inc. (MHS), the company that markets the LSI-R, indicate that more than 600 agencies in United States currently use this risk/need assessment tool. While increasing use of objective
classification instruments is encouraging, simultaneously there are growing concerns regarding the effective implementation of these “third-generation” risk/need assessment tools."



A Theoretical Basis for Gender-Responsive Strategies in Criminal Justice - Bloom et al 2002

"The number of women under criminal justice supervision in the United States reached over onemillion in 2001. In response, contemporary corrections has begun to consider the best way to effectively respond to women offenders. Female offenders are now a significant proportion of all offenders: they comprise 17 percent of the total number of offenders under correctional supervision, or one in every six offenders. These numbers have lead to a reexamination of the ways in which correctional policy and practice affect the female offender. This paper describes the theoretical basis for gender-responsiveness in the criminal justice system and the conceptual foundation for a set of gender-responsive strategies designed to improve policy and practice regarding women (Bloom, Owen & Covington, 2002)."



The Paradox of Women Arrested for Domestic Violence: Criminal Justice Professionals and Service Providers Respond - Miller et al 2001

"Increasingly, women are being arrested for domestic violence charges as part of dual arrests (when their partner is also arrested) or as a result of their own actions. Could this phenomenon be explained by women’s greater willingness to use violence against their abusive partners, or by a strict adherence by police and prosecutors to follow mandatory or pro-arrest laws without examining the context of the incidents, or something else? This article explores this issue by examining one state’s experience, using interview data from criminal justice professionals and service providers who deal directly with women arrested for domestic violence charges."


Classification of women offenders: A national assessment of current practices - Van Voorhis 2001

"This report presents the findings of a national assessment of state and federal practices for classifying women offenders conducted under the National Institute of Correction’s (NIC) Classification of Women Offenders Initiative. Information was collected from discussions on classification strategies with correctional administrators and representatives from classification and research offices throughout the 50 states and the Federal Bureau of Prisons, focus groups with staff and inmates, and ongoing work with agencies engaged in reforming the system. A detailed description was sought of current practices in use for women offenders. Respondents’ perceptions of whether their systems “worked” for women and served as a tool for making custody, programming, and housing decisions were noted, and the extent to
which agencies found the classification needs of women offenders to be different from men was explored. Finally, inquiries were made about the psychometric quality of current systems: What were the origins of the system? Was it developed with women offenders in mind, or was it designed for men and applied to women? Had the systems been validated for women offenders?"



Female crime in the united states 1963 thru 1998: An update - Small 2000

"This article is an update of the data compiled by the Simon and Landis (1991) in The Crimes Women Commit: The Punishments they Recieve. I examined current data on female labor, education, arrest, and prison statistics to further evaluate the arguments expressed by Simon and Landis in 1991."



Institutional Assessment and Classification of Women Offenders: From Robust Beauty to Person-Centered Assessment - Brennan 2000

"Correctional institutions must understand persons who enter their care. Assessment and classification are the main techniques such institutions rely on to describe, understand, treat and “name” their clients. Thus, errors of assessment or classification can produce systematic misunderstanding and inappropriate treatment of offenders. Assessment occurs at several stages of criminal justice processing. The dominant roles are to support various risk decisions (custody classifications, supervision levels, early release, pre-trial release, revocation of probation or parole, and so on); and to guide the provision of services and programs. Classification errors - aside from producing systematic misunderstanding of the clients – may also result in damaging and stigmatizing mismatches between the individual female offender and how she is processed, managed and treated. This chapter reviews
several problems and offers some suggestions for advances in assessing and classifying female offenders."



Tougher sentencing, economic hardships, and rising violence - Curry 2000




Femenist state theory: Aplications to jurisprudence criminology and the welfare state - Haney 2000

"This chapter discusses developments in feminist state theory through a comparison of feminist interventions into jurisprudence, criminology, and welfare state theory."



Gender and justice: Women, drugs, and sentencing policy - Mauer et al 1999

"Since 1980 the number of women in prison has increased at nearly double the rate for men. Nationally, there are now nearly seven times as many women in state and federal prisons as in 1980, an increase from 12,300 in 1980 to 82,800 by 1997, or a rise of 573%. This compares to an increase of 294% in the male prison population during this period. As a result the female proportion of the national prison population increased from 4.1% in 1980 to 6.4% in 1997. In addition, 63,000 women are incarcerated in local jails either awaiting trial or serving short sentences, yielding a total of 146,600 female inmates."



15 years of advocacy for women women: Timeline 15 year of advocacy for women - Small 1998

A history of the last 15 years for female offenders.



Female Juvenile Justice Report 1997- Boddy Media Group 1997

"These two studies were conducted by Boddy Media Group on behalf of the Iowa Commission on the Status of Women."



Women in Jail: Classification Issues - Brennan et al 1997

"This report examines the status of classification procedures for female jail inmates, an issue that has been largely ignored over the years. Due to increasing numbers of women being incarcerated, litigation, and weaknesses in current classification systems, the need for improved
objective classification systems for women has become an important issue for criminal justice policymakers, legal advocates, and jail administrators. Many agencies have begun to re-examine or revise their current policies and procedures for female classification (Forcier 1995, Austin et al. 1993, Jackson and Stearns 1995)."



The Role of Gender in Determining the Criminal Sanction: Results from Multimedia Experiments in Criminal Sentencing - Goldman et al 1997

"This paper addresses the role of gender in the criminal sentencing process. Studying gender effects presents thorny substantive and methodological challenges in research on sentencing disparities -- how one goes about discerning whether, to what extent, or under what conditions “gender” or other “extra-legal” factors impact the punishments meted out by judges."



What's in a name: Womanism, black feminism, and beyond - Collins 1996




Treatment for drug abusing women - Kumpfer 1991

"What is known about drug treatment effectiveness is based primarily on studies involving men. Little is know about treatment effectiveness for women, particularly pregnant women. Available research and clinical evidence demonstrate that some types of drug treatment can have positive effects in such areas as drug use, employability, and criminal behavior. Drug treatment modalities include residential programs
(both long-term therapy and short-term drug dependency hospitals and
treatment centers) and outpatient programs, including intensive day programs. Barriers that prevent women from getting the treatment they need include lack of programs that admit women, and pregnant women in particular; lack of programs tailored to women’s needs; and the fear and isolation experienced by most drugabusing, pregnant women. New federal and state initiatives are targeting this underserved population. In addition, federally-funded, large-scale demonstration and
evaluation projects employing diverse approaches are currently underway."