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Juvenile Justice

Each article on this page was pulled from sites that specialize in peer reviewed documents. These sites included Capella University’s online library, Sage Publications, Proquest, EBSCO, ERICS, as well as numerous others.

Each document has been thoroughly scanned personally for viruses, Trojans, or macros and is clean and safe for download. These documents are in Adobe PDF or Word format.


Juvenile Probation Officer Workload and Caseload Study:
Alaska Division of Juvenile Justice - Rosary 2010

"The purpose of this study was to measure and analyze the workload and caseload Juvenile Probation Officers (JPOs) within the Alaska Division of Juvenile Justice. More specifically, this study assessed the resources needed in both rural and urban Alaska to adequately meet minimum probation standards, to continue the development and enhancement of system improvements, and to fully implement the restorative justice field probation service delivery model. Restorative justice focuses on accountability, competency development, and community prevention with the ultimate goal of repairing the harm caused by the juvenile offender."



Understanding adolescent delinquency: The role of older siblings' delinquency and popularity with peers - Craine et al 2009

"The present study examined delinquency concordance and the moderating effects of younger sibling perceptions of older sibling popularity in a sample of 587 adolescent sibling pairs. Using a social learning framework and taking dyad composition into account, perceptions of popularity were hypothesized to strengthen siblings’ concordance for delinquency. Older sibling delinquency significantly predicted younger sibling delinquency. Older sibling popularity was
not important in predicting boys’ delinquency. However, perceptions of older sibling popularity directly predicted reduced delinquency for girls with older sisters. A significant interaction effect was found for girls with older brothers. Older brother delinquency predicted girls’ delinquency for girls who perceived their older brother to be relatively popular. There was no delinquency concordance for girls who perceived their older brothers to be less popular."



Discovery in child pornography cases after Adam Walsh act - Glynn et al 2009

What restrictions does the Adam Walsh Act place on defense access to discovery in child pornography cases? What was the law governing the production of this material prior to the Adam Walsh Act? If the statute only limits access to material or property that “constitutes child pornography,” who decides if the material is child pornography?



Mentally ill juveniles strain the system - Moore 2009

"As cash-starved states slash mental health programs in communities and schools, they are increasingly relying on the juvenile corrections system to handle a generation of young offenders with psychiatric disorders. About two-thirds of the nation’s juvenile inmates — who numbered 92,854 in 2006, down from 107,000 in 1999 — have at least one mental illness, according to surveys of youth prisons, and are more in need of therapy than punishment."



The commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth in illinois - Ashley 2008

"Child pornography and prostitution have made the commercial sexual exploitation of children a multi-million dollar industry in the U.S. Due to the attention that commercial sexual exploitation of children has received and its priority among federal, state, and local law enforcement officials, it is an important crime problem for Illinois to examine.1 The Department of Justice’s Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention considers commercial sexual exploitation of children, “one of the most overlooked and egregious forms of child abuse.” The office further states. “Reports from law enforcement and those concerned with child protection make it clear the commercial sexual exploitation of children is a critical problem and that increasing numbers of children and youth are being sexually exploited through prostitution and pornography in the United States.”


Street youth, unemployment, and crime: Is it that simple? Using general strain theory to untangle the relationship - Baron 2008


Article focusing onthe relationship between unemployment and youth crime



Getting Smart About Juvenile Justice in Florida: A Report of the Blueprint Commission - Brogan 2008

"For the past decade, the State of Florida’s approach
to juvenile crime has been “get tough.” For the
coming decade, Florida needs to move from “get
tough” to “get smart.” Today in Florida, more than 90,000 youth annually are referred to the Department of Juvenile Justice. If nothing changes – if the rates of referral and incarceration remain the same – Florida will run out of room in its juvenile commitment programs in five years. It will run out of room in its secure detention facilities in 10 years, and the population will continue to grow."



Juvenile Recidivism Report 2008 - Indiana DOC 2008

"This study looks at Juvenile offenders released in 2005 and follows the offender for three years from their release date to determine if the offender returned to incarceration in either a Juvenile or Adult Facility."



Profiles of incarcerated juveniles: A comparision of male and female offenders - Martin et al 2008

"Effective methods of identifying potential juvenile offenders are critical when developing prevention programs within both state and national juvenile justice systems. The characteristics of juvenile offenders in a large juvenile justice system are examined in this study."



Making Court the Last Resort A New Focus for Supporting Families in Crisis - Mogulescu et al 2008

"Many parents struggle with youth who skip school, abuse drugs or alcohol, or exhibit rebellious behavior. Those who cannot pay for private care to address these problems sometimes turn to the government for support. In the 1960s government officials created status offender systems to respond to such youth, who may be chronically disobedient but not committing crime. Until recently, youth in status offender systems were frequently referred to juvenile court and subject to the same punitive interventions as youth charged with criminal activity — even though court involvement and responses like detention tend to exacerbate the problems that first led families to seek help. Current research and best practices now suggest that youth and families in crisis require a faster response than courts can offer and that juvenile justice systems are often ill-equipped to provide the services these youth and families need."



Juvenile transfer laws: An effective deterrent to delinquency - Redding 2008

"Beginning in the 1980s, many States passed legal reforms designed to get tough on juvenile crime. One important reform was the revision of transfer (also called waiver or certification) laws (Griffin, 2003) to expand the types of offenses and offenders eligible for transfer from the juvenile court for trial and sentencing in the adult criminal court.1 These reforms lowered the minimum age for transfer, increased the number of transfer-eligible offenses, or expanded prosecutorial discretion and reduced judicial discretion in transfer decisionmaking (Fagan and Zimring, 2000; Redding, 2003, 2005)."


The Future of Children: Juvenile Justice 18(2) - Steinberg et al 2008

"American juvenile justice policy is in a period of transition. After a decade of declining juvenile crime rates, the moral panic that fueled the “get-tough” reforms of the 1990s and early 2000s—reforms that eroded the boundaries between juvenile and criminal court and exposed juvenile offenders to increasingly harsh punishments —has waned. State legislatures across the country have reconsidered punitive statutes they enacted with enthusiasm not so many years ago. What we may be seeing now is a pendulum that has reached its apex and is slowly beginning to swing back toward more moderate policies, as politicians and the public come to regret the high economic costs and ineffectiveness of the punitive reforms and the harshness of the sanctions."



Juvenile Recidivism Study in North Carolina - Beck et al 2007

"This is the Sentencing Commission’s first biennial report on juvenile recidivism, submitted to the North Carolina General Assembly on May 1, 2007, to serve as a baseline for future biennial studies of the State’s juvenile recidivism rates."



Juvenile Justice: Legislative History and Current Legislative Issues - Blas Nuñez-Neto 2007

"Administering justice to juvenile offenders has largely been the domain of the states, and as a result of this the laws that pertain to juvenile offenders can vary widely from state to state. There is no federal juvenile justice system. Although the federal government does not play a direct role in administering juvenile justice, in the 1960s, the federal government began establishing federal juvenile justice agencies and grant programs in order to influence the states’ juvenile justice systems. The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) of 1974 created many of the federal entities and grant programs that continue to operate today, including the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) and the state formula grants. Eligibility for many of these grant programs is tied to certain mandates that the states have to adhere to in order to receive federal funding."



Practitioner's Guide to The Adam Walsh Act, 20(9, 10) - McPherson 2007

"The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 was signed into law on July 27, 2006, and its impact is already
being felt across the country by state and local prosecutors. This article is intended to give a brief overview of what the practitioner needs to know about this new federal legislation and its potential impact on local prosecutions."



Juvenile Crime and Criminal Justice: Resolving Border Disputes - Fagen et al 2007

"As crime spiked in the U.S. in the late 1960s, and continued at an elevated rate for nearly three decades before declining to its previous lows, the statutory structure and jurisprudential logic that shaped the boundary between juvenile and criminal courts was renegotiated. The social and political context of this evolutionary process was influenced by popular reactions to rising crime and violence: the near abandonment of the principles of rehabilitation that were essential to the juvenile court, the replacement of judicial discretion with sentencing structures designed politically that fixed punishment to crime seriousness,6 and a growing popular fear of adolescents as frequent perpetrators of the most serious and violent crimes."



Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report - DOJJ 2006

"Juveniles in the U.S. today live in a world very different from that of their parents or grandparents. Problems experienced by children at the turn of the century are the products of multiple and sometimes complex causes. Data presented in this chapter indicate that in many ways conditions have improved in recent years, but only marginally. For example, the proportion of juveniles living in poverty has declined recently, but juveniles are still far more likely to live in poverty today than 20 years ago. Similarly, teenage birth rates have declined in recent years but still remain high. Fewer children are being raised in two-parent families. Although high school
dropout rates have fallen for most juveniles, the rates are still too high, especially in an employment market where unskilled labor is needed less and less."



Sensitive research with adolescents: Just how upsetting are self-report surveys anyway? - Langhinrichsen-Rohling et al 2006

"Distress related to answering personal survey questions about drug use, suicidal behavior, and physical and sexual abuse were examined in multiple convenience samples of adolescents. Samples varied in consent procedures utilized (active vs, passive parental consent), data collection setting (school vs. juvenile justice), developmental level (middle school vs. high school)."



Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure: Links to Severity and Frequency of Offending - Murry et al 2006

"During the past century, signifi cant changes in family arrangements have occurred; modern family structures vary widely and include many one-parent households as well as extended family arrangements. Differing family structures may directly impact the stability of the family home and the functioning of children and adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between family structure and juvenile delinquency through analysis of
selected data obtained from Juvenile Court records of juveniles entering the system in 1996 in a county in western Alabama. Results are presented in terms of the relationship between family structure and severity of juvenilesʼ criminal involvement and juvenilesʼ recidivism during a one-year period."



Peer Influences and Positive Cognitive Restructuring - Tate 2006

"Although it is widely accepted that peer influence is a powerful factor in adolescent development, profession use of this resource has been generally confined to exceptional or problematic populations. The research literature suggests that peer group programs have produced orderly, productive, and positive academic and rehabilitative environments. Peer group paradigms have also generated positive results in creating productive social group living environments and have helped reduce aggressive behaviors in group living settings. This article suggests elements to facilitate a peer group approach to cognitive problem-solving development school and group living settings while highlighting the adult-imposed roadblocks to that process."



SAMHSA the juvenile justice diversion and reintergration project - The national center for mental health and Juvenile justice 2005

"In 2003, the substance abuse mental health services administration (SAMHSA) provided funding to the national center for mental health and juvenile justice (NCMHJJ) based at policy research associates, to undertake a comprehensive national survey to identify existing juvenile diversion program models that effectively respond to the mental health and co-occurring substance use disorders of youth in contact with the juvenile justice system."



Juvenile Justice - Causes and Correlates: Findings and Implications A Risk BAsed Response to Gangs - Ashcrost et al 2004

"Delinquent behavior has long been a serious and costly problem in American society. Although the U.S. delinquency rate has declined since the mid-1990s, it is still among the highest in the industrialized countries. To reduce delinquent behavior and improve societal wellbeing, it is essential to develop effective intervention programs. In turn, effective programs depend on a firm, scientific understanding of the origins of delinquency. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention’s (OJJDP’s) Program of Research on the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency constitutes the largest, most comprehensive investigation of the causes and correlates of delinquency ever undertaken."



The effects of environment based education on students achievement motivation - Athman et al 2004

"This mixed-methodology study examined the relationship between environment-based education and high school students' achievement motivation. four hundred 9th-12th grade students from 11 Florida high schools participated in the study."



The Youth Criminal Justice Act: New directions and implementation issues - Barnhorst 2004

"This article explains some of the Youth Criminal Justice Act's key provisions and policy directions. It also identifies implementation issues that can significantly influence how the youth justice system operates under the YCJA. Major objectives to the act include reducing the use of the youth court and reducing the use of incarceration."



Neighborhoods and Adolescent Development: How Can We Determine the Links? - Duncan et al 2004

"Despite ample theoretical reasons to suspect that neighborhood conditions influence adolescent development and behavior, the task of securing precise, robust and unbiased estimates of neighborhood effects has proved remarkably difficult. This paper provides an assessment of the conceptual and, especially, methodological issues involved as well as guidance on the most promising research designs for obtaining an unbiased understanding of the nature of neighborhood effects."



Juvenile Justice in Florida: What kind of future - Krisberg 2004

"The National Council on Crime and Delinquency (NCCD) conducted a study to determine the potential benefits to Florida of adopting a data-driven approach to juvenile corrections that is based on the best national research. The NCCD relied heavily on the Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability (OPPAGA) reports and supplemented these with additional data collection"



Minorities in South Carolina’s Juvenile Justice System:
Understanding the Disparities and Assessing Community Readiness for Change - Motes et al 2004

"throughout the juvenile justice system (Devine, Coolbaugh, & Jenkins, 1998; Hamparian & Leiber, 1997; Hsai & Hamparian, 1998; Leiber, 2002; Roscoe & Morton, 1994; Snyder & Sickmund, 1999; Pope, Lovell, & Hsai, 2002). Typical of such research is the finding that disproportionate minority representation is evident at each stage of the juvenile justice system and becomes more apparent as youth progress into the system. While minority youth make up about one-third of the juvenile population in the nation, they account for about two-thirds of the population in secure juvenile facilities (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1999). In South Carolina, the statistics on over-representation of minority youth in the juvenile justice system are quite consistent with those nationwide."



Substance Use Treatment Need among Adolescents: 2003-National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2004

"Research suggests that many people who have a substance use problem do not receive treatment.1 The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asks persons aged 12 or older to report on their symptoms of dependence on or abuse of alcohol or illicit drugs."



Treatment, Services, and Intervention Programs for Child Delinquents - Burns et al 2003

"This Bulletin is part of OJJDP’s Child Delinquency Series, which presents the findings of the Study Group on Very Young Offenders. This series offers the latest information about child delinquency, including analyses of child delinquency statistics, insights into the origins of very young offending, and descriptions of early intervention programs and approaches that work to prevent the development of delinquent behavior by focusing on risk
and protective factors."



The impact of perpetrator gender on male and female police officers' perceptions of child sexual abuse - Kite et al 2003

"The aim of this study was to investigate if such gender effects are prevelant in Australian child abuse investigators, specifically the police."



Race as a Factor in Juvenile Arrests - Pope et al 2003

"Race-related issues are a major concern in the criminal and juvenile justice systems. This Bulletin focuses on a specific aspect of that concern within the juvenile justice system: the effects of race on police decisions to take juvenile offenders into custody. The Bulletin begins with background information, including a brief review of the research literature to date. It then analyzes recent data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI’s) National Incident-
Based Reporting System (NIBRS) for evidence of racial bias in juvenile arrests for violent crimes. Overall, the analysis reveals no direct evidence that such bias exists."



Friendship Networks and Delinquency: The Relative Nature of Peer Delinquency - Haynie 2002

"Although acknowledging the importance of adolescent friendships in the etiology of delinquency, prior studies have yet to provide a detailed examination of the role of actual friendship networks in delinquency. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1995–1996), this study’s incorporation of friendship networks allows for a more rigorous conceptualization and measurement of peer delinquency based on carefully defined networks of adolescent friendships. Findings illustrate that friendship networks are very heterogenous in terms of members’ participation in delinquent behavior with the majority of adolescents belonging to networks containing both delinquent and non-delinquent friends. In support of differential association’s premise that delinquent behavior is influenced by the ratio of definitions favorable to those unfavorable to law violation (Sutherland, 1947), the proportion of delinquent friends in a respondent’s network is most strongly associated with respondents’ subsequent delinquency."



Juvenile Justice Trends in 2002 Teen Courts—A Juvenile Justice Diversion Program Knowledge & Information Services - Herman 2002

"Teen courts, also known as youth or peer courts, are considered one of the fastest growing juvenile prevention and intervention programs in the country. They are rapidly gaining popularity as an alternative to juvenile justice and are considered a primary diversion option for young offenders in the juvenile justice system. Teen courts offer an adjudicatory venue in which nonviolent and, usually, first-time juvenile offenders are sentenced by their peers."



Breaking the Juvenile Drug-Crime Cycle: A guide for practitioners and policy makers - VanderWaal et al 2001

"Although many attempts have been made to break the juvenile drug-crime cycle, few interventions have demonstrated consistently positive scientific outcomes. This report summarizes existing knowledge about programmatic efforts to intervene in that cycle and proposes interventions and programmatic changes that will most likely successfully address that cycle. The authors hope practitioners, administrators, and policymakers will use this report to select effective interventions and develop collaborative partnerships among the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other community agencies seeking to break the cycle of drugs and crime among youths in the United States."



The Self-Report Method for Measuring Delinquency and Crime - Thornberry et al 2000

"The self-report technique is one of three major ways of measuring involvement in delinquent and criminal behavior. The basic approach of the self-report method is to ask individuals if they have engaged in delinquent or criminal behavior, and if so, how often they have done so. In this chapter, we review the origins of the self-report method in the 1950s, the growth and refinement of this measurement technique since then, and its role in criminological research, especially longitudinal research on the etiology of delinquent and criminal behavior. Particular attention is paid to assessing the reliability and validity of self-reported measures of delinquency. We also discuss specialized data collection methods, such as random response techniques and audio assisted computer-based interviewing, that have the potential to increase the accuracy of responses. Overall, we conclude that the psychometric quality of the self-report method has increased considerably since its inception in the 1950s. Although there is much room for continued improvement, self-report data appear acceptably valid and
reliable for most research purposes."



The Jimmy Ryce Act of 1998 - Presley 1999

"On September 11, 1995, a nine-year-old boy named Jimmy Ryce stepped off his school bus and disappeared. Months later, somebody noticed the child’s backpack in a local ranch hand’s trailer. The ranch hand, Juan Carlos Chavez, led authorities to Jimmy’s body. Jimmy had been kidnapped, raped, murdered, and dismembered. Juan Chavez was convicted of Jimmy’s murder on September 12, 1998. The boy’s parents, Don and Claudine Ryce, responded to their son’s brutal murder by authoring and lobbying the Jimmy Ryce Involuntary Civil Commitment for Sexually Violent Predators’ Treatment and Care Act (Jimmy Ryce Act). Governor Lawton Chiles signed the Act into law on May 19, 1998, and it became effective January 1, 1999. The Act defines certain sex offenders—“sexually violent predators”—as having a mental abnormality and seeks to have these offenders involuntarily and indefinitely committed to an appropriate “secure facility” for treatment, but only after the offenders have already served their criminal sentences in jail. Moreover, it applies only to persons who have already been convicted of a sexually violent crime."



Juvenile and Family Drug Courts: An Overview - Roberts et al 1999

"Juvenile and family drug courts provide immediate intervention in the lives of children and parents using drugs or exposed to substance addiction through family members, as well as structure for the litigants through the ongoing, active involvement and oversight of the drug court judges. Common goals of juvenile drug courts therefore include providing children with an opportunity to be clean and sober, constructive support to aid them in resisting further criminal activity, support to perform well in school and develop positive relationships in the community, and skills that will aid them in leading productive, substance-free, and crime-free lives. Most programs recognize that to accomplish these goals, the court may need to have a continuing involvement with each child beyond the period traditionally
required by the adversarial process."



Alternative Placements for Juvenile Offenders: Results from the Evaluation of the Nokomis Challenge Program - Deschenes et al 1998

"The Nokomis Challenge Program, an innovative correctional program for low and medium risk delinquents, was implimented by the Michigan Department of Social Services (DSS) in 1989. The program combines three months of residence and outdoor challenge programming with nine months of intensive community based aftercare."



Doing What Simple Simon Says?: Estimating the Underlying Causal Structures of Delinquent Associations, Attitudes, and Serious Theft - Reed et al 1998

"From within a social learning framework, the authors test the relative contributions of socialization, group pressure, social selection, and rationalization processes in explaining the relationships between peer-group associations, attitudes, and serious theft."



Differences in the background and criminal justice characteristics of young Black, White, and Hispanic male federal prison inmates - Jackson 1997

"Descriptions of Black, White and Hispanic male inmates aged 18 to 25 years old who are under the federal correctional system are presented based on a reexamination of the data in the 1991 Survey of Inmates of Federal Correctional Facilities. There is a very strong indication that Blacks and Hispanics are being discriminated in the judicial system resulting in the larger percentage of Blacks and Hispanics being incarcerated compared to Whites. Other factors are also possible such as socioeconomics, language barriers, child rearing practices and family structure."


Juvenile delinquents in the federal criminal justice system - Scalia 1997

"During 1995, U.S. attorneys filed cases against 240 persons for alleged acts of juvenile delinquency. Of these, 122 cases were adjudicated in Federal court, representing 0.2% of the 56,243 cases (both adult and juvenile) adjudicated during 1995. Almost half of juvenile delinquency cases involved a violent offense (32%) or a drug offense (15%). Federal prosecutors declined further action against 228 other juveniles referred to them."