CJ for Students

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Other Resources on the Net

Other resources will get linked here as I gather them



Each article on this page was pulled from sites that specialize in peer reviewed documents. These sites included Capella University’s online library, Sage Publications, Proquest, EBSCO, ERICS, as well as numerous others.

Each document has been thoroughly scanned personally for viruses, Trojans, or macros and is clean and safe for download. These documents are in Adobe PDF or Word format


An Assessment of the relative impact of criminal justice and criminology journals - Sorenson 2009 - (Journal of Criminal Justice 37 (2009) 505–511)

"The current study was undertaken to provide an impact assessment of criminal justice and criminology journals as an alternative measure to the prestige survey ratings reported by Sorensen, Snell, and Rodriguez (2006). Citations to sixty-seven target journals were tallied from ten top criminal justice and criminology journals. Various impact measures were fairly consistent with one another and the prestige survey ratings, particularly for a “top tier” of journals. With a couple of notable exceptions, a long-standing core of these elite journals has held their relative positions from early impact studies relying on data from the 1970s and 1980s; nevertheless, significant deviations were noted based on the measurement utilized for all but the top journals. Findings from the current study suggested that the quality of journals is multifaceted and warns against employing a scale based on one dimension of journal quality."



Constructionism versus what? - Engler 2004 - doi:10.1016/j.religion.2004.09.001

Constructionism is a theoretical perspective with great potential usefulness for the study of religion. However, the theory is often assumed rather than clarified, and it is often reduced to its extreme relativistic versions. As a result, its value has stagnated even as talk of constructs has proliferated. Constructionism has been portrayed as the other of religion’s two realisms: theological and phenomenological. It has been cast in the role of a conveniently discounted counter-position. Constructionist work in the study of religion, by failing to clarify its theoretical basis adequately and by too often accepting the role of antagonist to realism, shares responsibility for this misleading and detrimental characterisation. Lack of due attention to theory has obscured the status and claims of constructionism. This theoretical perspective is not necessarily reductionist or radically relativist, and it is not simply the opposite of realist or sui generis approaches to religion. Constructionism can help us understand how historically and culturally contingent religious phenomena arise from the raw materials of our physical and social worlds.



Crime cultivation: Comparisons accross media genres and channels - Grabe et al 2007 - (Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 51.1 (March 2007): p.147(25).)

"This study tests the idea that TV genres (crime drama, reality cop shows, news) and channels (TV and newspapers) vary in their potential to cultivate perceptions, fears, and behavior related to exposure and attention to crime content. Randomly selected adults (505) over the age of 18 in Indiana were interviewed. Regression analyses indicate significant variance across media genres and channels in their influence on viewer orientations to crime. Yet overall, media use is a relatively weak predictor of crime orientations."


Criminals and their scientist: The history of criminology in international perspective - Becker and Wetzel 2006

"Criminals and Their Scientists (2006) approaches the history of criminology as a history of discursive practices rather than conceiving as criminological knowledge as a progressive discourse. Seeking to understand how criminological thought emerged as a disciplinary knowledge formation, this volume examines how discursive choices echo the intellectual, social, and political contexts of a particular place and time."



Ecology of crime - Encyclopedia of crime and justice vol 2 2nd ed - Retrieved 2009

"Ecological variation in crime, delinquency, and fear of crime are examined in this entry. The discussion examines macro-level variations at the regional and city-levels, this considers community
level variations."



Economics and Crime: The Effects of the Economy on North Carolinas criminal justice system - (North carolina Criminal Justice systems vo l27_1 - 2010)

"The Criminal Justice Analysis Center of the Governor’s Crime Commission conducted a survey of law enforcement agencies across North Carolina to assess how the recent economic downturn has
affected the state’s law enforcement and criminal justice systems. The survey replicated a portion of a Police Executive Research Forum survey to determine how criminal justice agencies across the
state have been impacted in comparison to the rest of the nation."



Education and crime - Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice vol2 2nd edition retrieved 2009

"In modern societies, an individual’s life trajectory including an individual’s involvement in criminal activity—has become increasingly determined by his or her educational experiences. Over the past few centuries, schools have in many ways come to challenge families as the primary site for childhood socialization. The expanding role of formal education in the lives of youth has many causes. Economic production has become more dependent on cognitive skills taught in schools...."



Education on lockdown: The schoolhouse to jailhouse track - Unidos et al 2005

"Education on Lockdown: The Schoolhouse to Jailhouse Track, is Advancement Project’s second examination of the emergence of zero tolerance school discipline policies and how these policies have pushed students away from an academic track to a future in the juvenile justice system. School districts have teamed up with law enforcement to create this “schoolhouse to jailhouse track” by imposing a “double dose” of punishment - suspensions or expulsions and a trip to the juvenile court - for one act of childish misconduct."



Gearing up against crime: A dynamic framework to help designers keep up with the adaptive criminal in a changing world - Ekblom 1997 - (International Journal of Risk, Security and Crime Prevention
October 1997, Vol 2/4:249-265)

"This paper is a first, exploratory, attempt at providing some background, and a framework, to help designers more systematically incorporate crime prevention in their remit. The scope includes design of technological items, environments, systems and services. With all these
products this is design against misappropriation, damage and misuse in the furtherance of crime; and design of products explicitly intended for the furtherance of prevention. The intention is to stimulate designers, commissioners of design and those like criminologists who conduct research that informs design in two ways: 1) shifting perspective from user to misuser to aid the day-to-day process of incorporating the preventive function in specific design tasks; and 2) in the more strategic process of helping crime prevention evolve as fast as crime in a world of
adaptable criminals and changing opportunities, many of which stem from the permeation of society by IT. This involves setting up the infrastructure to speed up the feeding of information on crime and prevention to designers, and to promote the durability of preventive techniques. For the one certain thing in prevention is the obsolescence, sooner or later, of any individual measure."



Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and criminal justice supervision - Marlowe 2003

"Proponents of a pure public safety perspective on the drug problem hold that drug-involved offenders require consistent and intensive supervision by criminal justice authorities in order to stay off drugs and out of trouble. In contrast, proponents of a thoroughgoing public health
perspective commonly argue that clients perform better if they are left alone to develop an effective therapeutic alliance with counselors. Both may be correct, but with respect to different groups of offenders. One approach has shown consistent promise for reducing drug use and criminal recidivism: an integrated public health-public safety strategy that combines community-based drug abuse treatment with ongoing criminal justice supervision. This article presents promising findings from programs implementing this strategy and discusses best treatment practices to meet the needs of both low-risk and high-risk clients."



Making court the last resort: A new focus for supporting families in crisis - Mogulescu et al 2008

"To better help youth and their families, many status offender systems are implementing immediate, family-focused alternatives to court intervention. As momentum builds from these efforts, a new paradigm for status offender services is emerging: refer at-risk young people and their families to social service programs in their communities and use the juvenile justice system as a last resort. The new paradigm is guided by the belief that families have the potential to resolve issues without the courts; they simply need guidance and support to do so."



Mandatory injustice: Case histories of women convicted under new york's rockerfeller drug laws - SenGupta and Peterson 1999

"With active support from then Governor Nelson Rockefeller, the New York State Legislature enacted the New York Drug Laws in 1973, instituting harsh prison sentences for a wide range of drug offenses. Amended in 1979 mainly to reduce penalties for offenses involving marijuana, these laws still require punishments for the possession or sale of heroin, cocaine, and other hard drugs that rank among the most severe in the nation....."



Memorializing misscarriages of justice: Clemency petitions in the killing state - Sarat 2008 (Law & Society Review; Mar 2008; 42, 1; ProQuest Psychology Journals pg. 183)

"Clemency in capital cases today has become quite rare. Capital clemency has been a victim of the rejection of rehabilitation as the guiding philosophy of criminal sentencing and of the increasing politicization of issues of crime and punishment since the 1960s....."



Minority overrepresentation in the criminal and juvenile justice systems - Dighton 2003

"Minority overrepresentation in the U.S. criminal and juvenile
justice systems has been studied, written about, and debated for
decades. Yet, like racial differences in our society in general, the problem persists, and the reasons for the continued disparity seem to be as complex as the solutions are illusive."



National Response Framework - Homeland Security 2008

"This National Response Framework (NRF) is a guide to how the Nation conducts all-hazards response. It is built upon scalable, flexible, and adaptable coordinating structures to align key roles and responsibilities across the Nation, linking all levels of government, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector. It is intended to capture specific authorities and best practices for managing incidents that range from the serious but purely local, to large-scale terrorist attacks or catastrophic natural disasters."



Occupational crime, occupational diviance, and workplace crime: Sorting out the difference - Friedrichs 2002

"The concept of occupational crime—as one of the principal forms
of white collar crime—has been quite familiar and widely invoked
since the publication of Clinard and Quinney’s influential Criminal
Behavior Systems: A Typology. More recently, however, the term
occupational crime has been applied to activities quite removed
from the original meaning of white collar crime, and it has been
used interchangeably with such terms as occupational deviance and
workplace crime. In the interest of greater conceptual clarity within
the field of white collar crime the argument is made here for
restricting the term ‘occupational crime’ to illegal and unethical
activities committed for individual financial gain—or to avoid
financial loss—in the context of a legitimate occupation...."



Playing with fire: The civil liberties implications of 9-11 - Gould 2002 - (Public Administration Review; Sep 2002; 62, proquest psychology journals pg. 74)

"The aftermath of 9/11 has seen a worrisome rise in invasive surveillance measures. Both adopted by statute and initiated by agencies, these provisions provide unprecedented powers for government agents to investigate suspects and search individuals, whether they are directly involved in terrorism or not....."



Postmodernism and health promotion: Implications for debate on effectiveness - Webb et al chapter 5

"This chapter considers the value of a postmodern perspective to
understanding health promotion and the current debate on measuring
its effectiveness. Although health promotion has developed from a
mix of positivist disciplines—for example, medicine, epidemiology
and behavioural psychology—and constructivist disciplines such as
community development and community psychology (Labonte and
Robertson 1996), it may be that the dominant tenets of health
promotion are more consistent with the constructivist underpinnings
of postmodernism than the positivist premises of evidence-based
health care. If so, a postmodernist mode of enquiry can serve as a
useful corrective to the outcomes research model in measuring the
effectiveness of health promotion."



Postmodernism and Knowledge Development in Nursing - Watson 1995

"Postmodemism as a concept and periodizing point between centuries has been defined as both the beginning and the end of modemity. This article explores some of the dimensions of this moment and movement between centuries and the implications of the postmodem condition on the nursing profession. Amidst the health care reform angst of deconstructing and reconstructing, challenges and opportunities await nursing's eVOlution into its own postmodem paradigm. Manifestations of such a postmodem paradigm are already reflected in the epistemological shifts of nursing science and knowledge development. Challenges posed for nursing science by this disorientingiy free-floating era are brought to light - away from the reaction worldview, past the reciprocal and into the transformative-simultaneous, whereby nursing can emerge within its own unique postmodem discipline."



Postmodernism and Sociology: From the epistemological to the empirical - Mirchandani 2005

"This article investigates the place of postmodernism in sociology today by making a distinction between its epistemological and empirical forms. During the 1980s and early 1990s, sociologists exposited, appropriated, and normalized an epistemological postmodernism that thematizes the tentative, reflective, and possibly shifting nature of knowledge. More recently, however, sociologists have recognized the potential of a
postmodern theory that turns its attention to empirical concerns. Empirical postmodernists challenge classical modern concepts to develop research programs based on new concepts like time-space reorganization, risk society, consumer capitalism, and postmodern ethics. But they do so with an appreciation for the uncertainty of the
social world, ourselves, our concepts, and our commitment to our concepts that results from the encounter with postmodern epistemology. Ultimately, this article suggests that understanding postmodernism as a combination of these two moments can lead to a sociology whose epistemological modesty and empirical sensitivity encourage a
deeper and broader approach to the contemporary social world."



Promising strategies to reduce substance abuse - Reno et al 2000

"Drug and alcohol abuse, drug trafficking, and related criminal activity remain serious problems that affect the lives of most Americans. Under the leadership of President Clinton and in cooperation with the Office of National Drug Control Policy, the U.S. Department of Justice has promoted and pursued an approach that combines prevention,
treatment, and enforcement to break the cycle of substance abuse and crime. Promising Strategies to Reduce Substance Abuse illustrates this approach through examples of programs that have been adopted successfully by communities across the country. We see this volume as a “toolbox” for elected state and local officials, law enforcement,
prosecutors, judges, community organizers, and other policymakers. It contains practical information about a range of proven and promising strategies to reduce substance abuse."



Psychosocial Correlates of adolescent drug dealing in the inner city: Potential Roles of Opportunity, Conventional Commitments, and Maturity - Little et al 2006

"This study examined a model of the simultaneous and interactive influence of social context, psychosocial attitudes, and individual maturity on the prediction of urban adolescent drug dealing. Five factors were found to significantly increase adolescents’ opportunity for drug selling: low parental monitoring, poor neighborhood conditions, low neighborhood job opportunity, parental substance use or abuse, and high levels of peer group deviance. The relation between drug-selling opportunity and adolescents’ frequency of drug selling was partially mediated by adolescents’ alienation from conventional goals and
from commitment to school."


Citizens' Perceptions of Politics and Ethics in Public Administration: A Five-Year National Study of Their Relationship to Satisfaction
with Services, Trust in Governance, and Voice Orientations - Vigoda-Gadot 2006

"In recent decades organizational politics (OP) has become a grawing field of interest in managerial studies. To date, the major scholarty effort has been dedicated to the exploration of intraorganizational politics based on employees' perceptions. However, one of the important aspects of this phenomenon is the way in which it is viewed by the external
organizational environment-by customers, clients, and as far as governmental agencies are concerned, by the general public as well. This article examines citizens' perceptions of organizational politics and ethics in public administration systems. It focuses on the relationship between these perceptions and several key outcomes of modem bureaucracy such as satisfaction with services, trust in governmental institutions, and the resulting voice orientations and opinions by the public (i.e~ political efficacy, political participation). The data for the study were gathered from a half decade's worth of national surveys in Israel. The results point to meaningful direct and indirect relationships between organizational politics and ethics in the public sector, satisfaction, trust, and voice orientation. The article ends with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of the findings and suggestions for future studies."



Race and crime - Encyclopedia of crime and justice vol3 2nd edition retrieved 2009 - (Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice. Ed. Joshua Dressler. Vol. 3. 2nd ed. p1295-1300. (3923 words)

"The relationship between race and crime has been a primary concern among sociologists and criminologists since the beginning of the disciplines in America. Various racial and ethnic minorities in the United States have consistently been associated with higher rates of criminality,
including peoples of Italian, Polish, Irish, German, Hispanic, and African descent, among others. Throughout history, most of the ‘‘high crime
groups’’ have been newly immigrated populations. However, at the turn of the millenium, most of these groups seem to be distinguished predominantly by their skin color, residential location, and socioeconomic status. Hispanics and African Americans living in impoverished ghetto neighborhoods are subject to disproportionate
police attention, and are overly represented in court dockets, jail and prison populations, media accounts of crime, street crime victims, and public fear of crime."



Race, Crime, and the American Dream - Cernkovich et al 2000 - Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 2000; 37; 131

"Although strain and social control theories assign a ccentral role to the inluence of the american dream on criminal behavior, little research has examined the impact on African Americans. Furthermore, while the criminology literatre is replete with studies of the influence of asperations and expectations on behavior, few of these have emphasized the economic goals so central to the core tenents of the American dream...."



Restorative justice: Sketching a new legal discourse - Frank Hill Retrieved 2009

"As the epigraphs suggest, the aim of this paper is not merely an exploration of the practice of restorative justice, but rather an examination of the radical re-visioning of criminal justice specifically and legal discourse generally which restorative justice gestures toward. Restorative justice imagines, and seeks to bring about, a system of
justice which is responsive to the vicissitudes and dynamism that characterize individual experiences of crime."



The sexual victimization of college women - Fisher et al 2000

"This study contributes extremely important data to our understanding about the prevalence and nature of violence against women in the United States. College campuses host large concentrations of young women who are at greater risk for rape and other forms of sexual assault than women in the general population or in a comparable age group. Based on their findings, Bonnie Fisher and her colleagues estimate that the women at a college that has 10,000 female students could experience more than 350 rapes a year— a finding with serious policy implications for college administrators."



The baby and the bathwater: 'professionalization' in psychotherapy and counseling - Totton 1999

"The current rush to professionalization in the field of counseling and phsychotherapy, and some of its deleterious effects, are examined...."



The death penalty and the society we want - Bright 2008 - Pierce law review vol 6 no 3

"Winston Churchill once observed: “The mood and temper of the public in regard to the treatment of crime and criminals is one of the most unfailing tests of any country. . . . [They] mark and measure the stored-up strength of a nation, and are the sign and proof of the living virtue within it.” It is worth a moment to examine how our society measures up by this standard and to look at the role that lawyers play in shaping the kind of society we have."



The nature of crime continuity and change: A century of juvenile justice - chapter 2 - Harris et al 2000

"The millennium marks the beginning of a second century for the formal
system of juvenile justice in the United States. From its inception,
the central focus of the system has been delinquency, an amorphous
construct that includes not only “criminal” behavior but also an array
of youthful actions that offend prevailing social mores. Thus, the
meaning of delinquency is markedly time dependent. Likewise, methods
for addressing the phenomenon have reflected the vagaries of
social constructions of youth and youth deviance."



The Relationship between Race Ethnicity and Sentencing Outcomes: A Meta Analysis of Sentencing Research - Mitchell et al 2004

"Statement of Purpose: A tremendous body of research has accumulated on the topic of racial and ethnic discrimination in sentencing. These studies have produced seemingly divergent findings. The purpose of this research is to conduct an objective, comprehensive, and systematic review of the literature regarding the relationship between race/ethnicity and sentencing outcomes using quantitative methods (i.e., meta-analysis), which remedy many of the shortcomings inherent in the extant qualitative (narrative) reviews. Further, this research goes beyond simply addressing the question of whether there is unwarranted racial/ethnic sentencing disparity, but also addresses the question of why this body of research produces such inconsistent findings."



The thick black line: An analysis of police officer views on racial profiling and the police minority relationship - a thesis by Glover 2003

"Much research has been conducted on the police-minority relationship, primarily from the view of the civilian. As central actors, the police view is noticeably absent from the research. I employed in-depth interviews and open-ended survey questions of patrol officers and sergeants in the Novad Texas Police Department about their views on the police-minority relationship and racial profiling."



Viewing CSI and the threshold of guilt: Managing Truth and Justice In reality and fiction - Tyler 2006

"The "CSI effect "is a term that legal authorities and the mass media have coined to deseribe a supposedd innocence that watching the television show CSI Crime Scene Investigation has on juror behavior. Some have said that jurors who see the high-quality forensic evidence presented on CSI raise their standards in real trials, in which actual evidence is typically more nawed and uncenain. As a result. these CSI affected jurors are alleged to acquit defendants more frequently...."



What good are positive emotions in crisis: A study of resiliance and emotions following terrorist attacks on 9/11 - Waugh and Larkin 2003

"Extrapolating from B. L. Fredrickson’s (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, the authors hypothesized that positive emotions are active ingredients within trait resilience. U.S. college
students (18 men and 28 women) were tested in early 2001 and again in the weeks following the September 11th terrorist attacks. Mediational analyses showed that positive emotions experienced in the wake of the attacks— gratitude, interest, love, and so forth—fully accounted for the relations between (a) precrisis resilience and later development of depressive symptoms and (b) precrisis resilience and postcrisis growth in psychological resources. Findings suggest that positive emotions in the aftermath of crises buffer resilient people against depression and fuel thriving, consistent with the broaden-and-build theory. Discussion touches on implications for coping."